Taking the ho-hum out of report writing
There you are on a Monday night, watching football. What type of commentary do you hear? There’s the “play-by-play,” a barebones delivery telling you what down your team is on and who made the play — things that, for the most part, you can already see. Then there’s the “color commentary” –the interesting stuff that fills in the gaps and puts situations in context. It brings the game to life.
The same two-tiered approach is necessary for writing police reports — especially in the case of use-of-force incidents. In addition to the facts, police officers need to document tactical considerations and special circumstances that factored into their decision to use force.
This goes well beyond window dressing; a thoroughly written report can not only save you a headache — it could save your job.
“Often, people writing the reports—or even people testifying— want to get right to what happened: He had a gun, I drew my gun, he said this, I did that…” he said.
And while the facts are a good start, they’re not enough.
“In order to find the truth,” he said, “you have to get to the totality of things.”
In other words, be your own color commentator.
The Golden Standard
In other words, an informed judgment must be made based on the perspective of the officer involved — and how will we know the perspective of the officer if he doesn’t detail it?
“In the Graham case, the Court instructed lower courts to always ask three questions to measure the lawfulness of a particular use of force,” said PoliceOne legal columnist Ken Wallentine. “First, what was the severity of the crime that the officer believed the suspect to have committed or be committing? Second, did the suspect present an immediate threat to the safety of officers or the public? Third, was the suspect actively resisting arrest or attempting to escape?”
“The Supreme Court cautioned courts examining excessive force claims that ‘the calculus of reasonableness must embody allowance for the fact that police officers are often forced to make split-second judgments–in circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving–about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation,’” Wallentine said.
The impact of the case was huge. “The judges in this case talked about the totality of circumstances known to the officer at the moment of the decision to use force,” Willis said. “This is important because police decisions are quick decisions made in very uncertain circumstances. And who, if not the police officer involved, is going to offer this information?”
P1's use-of-force defense expert Gary Klugiewicz is fond of saying, "If you don't write it down and it would have made you look good, it didn't happen."
“These days, we’re in a legal climate where it’s not just the legal justification, but the professionalism of the officer that is questioned,” said Willis.
For this reason, a conclusive report needs to set the stage so those who read it get the feeling that you had the moment you made your decision. This information supplies not only the legal justifications, but also all the tactical and environmental considerations — what goes through an officer’s mind to determine whether it’s desirable to discontinue? (i.e., why didn’t he just disengage or wait for back-up?)
Consider the following questions when constructing your report:
(Remember: The battlefield conditions need to be laid out prior to getting into the specifics of what level of force was used.)
Willis strongly urges officers to include documentation of verbal contact in their reports. This means documenting any attempt at verbal defusion tactics as well as why they were not feasible (i.e., situation became too dangerous, EDP wasn't rational, etc.).
"Your case will be stronger," he said. "This will show that you tried to use arbitration tactics, despite the fact they failed."
“Videotape is not the best evidence out there,” Wills said. “It’s from a passive point of view that’s different from the officer’s. Plus, it’s susceptible to distortion, making it difficult to gauge nuances of distance, depth, color and sound.”
The best evidence, he said, is still the officer’s description.
What a drag
“Report writing is not studly,” said Bob Willis. “It’s not why we went into police work. We’re not stenographers with guns.”
Still, Willis’ upshot is unforgiving: “Some officers just hate to do it. But too bad, it’s your job.”
Where the buck stops
Officers lose their jobs over this – or worse; cops have even gone to jail over shoddy reports.
“I knew an officer who ended up in jail charged with misconduct in public office because his report failed to paint the whole picture,” Willis said. “Ultimately, it didn’t jibe with videotape of the incident.”
“He ended up in the ‘trick bag’ so bad, he lost his job,” he said.
These days, when everyone has a video camera, Willis believes that law enforcement has a professional responsibility to document what they do.
“Doctors do it, nurses do it,” he said, “Police are professionals; we need to do it too.”
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