Recent medical studies hail the safe use of conducted energy weapons
|By Darrell L. Ross, Ph.D. |
The use of the TASER®, conducted energy weapons (CEWs) has increased in popularity among law enforcement and correctional agencies. Presently over 8,000 law enforcement departments utilize them (TASER International, 2007). However, since there have been a number of sudden deaths and injuries of arrestees following deployment of the TASER, numerous concerns have emerged regarding the safe use of the device. Questions regarding the safety of CWEs have prompted several research projects. Because the use of the TASER has increased over the use of oleoresin capsicum and impact weapons, a review of recent research is important.
In 2006 Stroke and Huston, published a medical case series article which analyzed 37 autopsy reports of decedents who died after exposure to the TASER® from 2001 to 2005. All of the subjects were men, ranging between the ages of 18 to 50 years. Cardiovascular disease was found in 54%, illegal substances were found by toxicology screening in 78%, and 86% within that group were found to have been using stimulants. Excited delirium was determined in 76% of the cases. The use of the TASER was considered a potential or contributory cause of death in 27%. This research was the largest and the second study to analyze autopsy reports of those exposed to CEW applications. Kornblum and Reddy (1991) studied 16 deaths after the use of the TASER and found no causal factor of death associated with its use. Stroke and Huston concluded that those that died after the use of the TASER are individuals who were already at a high risk for sudden deaths, particularly those who are exhibiting extreme agitation, those with a history of stimulant drug use, and those with preexisting heart disease.
Ho et al. (2006) performed a medical study for TASER International which assessed the effects of the TASER on human subjects. The researchers were unable to detect, following a 5 second TASER exposure in a healthy population, any induced dysrthymias or cardiac cellular damage that could be related to sudden death, They did report, however, blood pH, and metabolic acidosis could increase the risk of cardiac arrest.
Chan et al. (2006) exposed 32 subjects to a 1.5 second cycle shock to the TASER. Prior to exposure, the subjects’ baseline measurements were taken. All of the subjects were monitored for six hours after the exposure. They found no evidence of hypoxemia or hypoventilation. Further, they found a moderate increase in respiratory rate for ten minutes but found no significant clinical changes in cardiovascular rates. Changes in blood levels were not evidenced.
Ross (2007) analyzed 47 autopsy reports from 20 states from 1999 to 2006 of individuals who died after exposure to the TASER. Of these incidents, 85% occurred in a street arrest situation and 15% occurred in jail. All of the decedents were men, 54% were white, and the average age was 35 years. Heart disease was found in 85%, 65% had an enlarged heart, and 35% exhibited other internal organ abnormalities. On average the TASER was applied in 2 cycles of 5 second intervals. In 75% of the cases the cause of death was due to cardiac arrest due to drugs and excited delirium and 10% of the deaths were caused by acute exhaustive mania. No direct linkage to the use of TASER was correlated to the cause of death.
Ross (2007) also analyzed 75 police agency reports from 22 states on the applications of the TASER in 34,000 arrests from 2002 to 2006. Of these arrests the TASER was deployed in 6,010 or 18%. The agencies reported that suspect injuries decreased by 66%, minor injuries were sustained in 35% of the arrests, and officer injuries declined by 58%. The effective rate of the use of the TASER was observed in 94%. On average lethal force incidents declined by 48%, excessive force lawsuits declined by 52%, citizen complaints declined by 52%, and no deaths were reported.
The most recent medical study researching the injury potential of using the TASER was performed by Bozeman et al. (10/2007) from the Wake Forest Medical School. The Department of Justice funded the study for the purpose of performing the first large, independent study which assessed the injury and severity of injury after exposure to the TASER. A multicenter cohort study was conducted at six police agencies across the country. All arrestees exposed to the TASER were included in the study from July 2005 to June 2007 which totaled 962. A tactical physician at each agency reviewed police records and medical records for each case.
While these studies do not represent all medical research on the subject they do reveal emerging significant findings. All but one of the studies involved independent research. What is important about these studies is that they have moved past studying the effect of the TASER on animals and have researched its impact on humans. The Bozeman et al., Ross, and Ho et al. studies analyzed incidents from actual field applications. The Bozeman et al. study is particularly noteworthy as it applied a longitudinal design with multiple sites with almost 1,000 suspects. The study shows that the injury potential of using the TASER is statistically insignificant supporting its safe usage.
The collective findings of all of these studies support the fact that the TASER is not causally linked to sudden deaths of suspects, that there is an extremely low risk of injury to a suspect, and that there is no evidence that it causes cardiovascular effects linking it to sudden death. This is not to suggest that the TASER is totally risk free. While rare, there have been limited significant injuries sustained after the use of the TASER. These studies, however, are important as they underscore the initial development of the TASER, in that it was designed to safely control resisting subjects by decreasing the injury potential for the subject and the officer. Officers using the TASER are encouraged to closely follow their training, policy, and use of force legal standards in a continued effort to maximize its continued safe application.
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