Dr. Darrell L. Ross Legal Issues and Concepts
with Dr. Darrell L. Ross

Ross study references

Adam, J., F. Pass, M. Buekers, I. Wuyts, W. Spijkers and P. Wallmeyer. 1999. Gender differences in choice reaction
time: evidence for differential strategies. Ergonomics 42: 327.

Amendola, K. L. 1996. Officer behavior in police-citizen encounters: a descriptive model and implications for less-
than-lethal alternatives. Police Foundation Reports. 1-8.

Ando, S., N. Kida and S. Oda. 2002. Practice effects on reaction time for peripheral and central visual fields.
Perceptual and Motor Skills 95(3): 747-752.

Artwohl, A. and W. Christensen. (1997). Deadly Force Encounters. Paladin Press, Boulder, Co.

Aveni, T. J. M.S. (2003). Officer –involved shootings: what we didn’t know has hurt us. The Police Policy Studies
. 1-18.

Barral, J. and B. Debu. (2004). Aiming in adults: Sex and laterality effects. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and
9(3): 299-312.

Bertelson, P. (1967). The time course of preparation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 19: 272-279.

Brebner, J. T. and A. T. Welford (1980). Introduction: a historical background sketch. In A. T. Welford (Ed.), Reaction
Times. Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-23.

Broadbent, D. E. (1971). Decision and Stress. Academic Press, London.

Bryden, P. (2002). Pushing the limits of task difficulty for the right and left hands in manual aiming. Brain and
48(2-3): 287-291.

Buchsbaum, M. and E. Callaway. (1965). Influence of respiratory cycle on simple RT. Perceptual and Motor Skills 20:

Charlier, J. and Buquet, C. (1991). Experience with an eye tracker in visual communication evaluation. Elsevier Science
. 457-464.

Collardeau, M., J. Brisswalter, and M. Audiffren. (2001). Effects of a prolonged run on simple reaction time of well-
trained runners. Perceptual and Motor Skills 93(3): 679.

Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. M., Sadler, M. S., Wittenbrink, B., and Keesee, T. (2007). Across the thin blue line:
police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 92,
No. 6, 1006-1023.

Dane, S. and A. Erzurumluoglu. (2003). Sex and handedness differences in eye-hand visual reaction times in handball
players. International Journal of Neuroscience 113(7): 923-929.

Donders, F. C. (1868). On the speed of mental processes. Translated by W. G. Koster, 1969. Acta Psychologica 30:

DuCharme, S. D. (2002). The search for reasonable in use-of –force cases: understanding the effects of stress on
perception and performance
. Fordham Law Review. 1-48.

Ferrera, J. (1996). A study of reaction and response team in subject control training. PPCT Research Publication.
October 26, 1998. 1-25.

Fontani, G., L. Lodi, A. Felici, S. Migliorini and F. Corradeschi. (2006). Attention in athletes of high and low
experience engaged in different open skill sports
. Perceptual and Motor Skills 102(3): 791-816.

Freeman, G. L. (1933). The facilitative and inhibitory effects of muscular tension upon performance. American Journal
of Psychology 26: 602-608.

Froeberg, S. (1907). The relation between the magnitude of stimulus and the time of reaction. Archives of Psychology,
No. 8.

Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink. Little and Brown, NY.

Good, K. OODA Cycle (2003). Robert Paterson’s Radio Blog. 1-9.

Grossman, D. (2004). On Combat. PPCT Research Publications, Bellville, IL.

Grossman, D. (1995). On Killing. Back Bay Books.

Heylighen F. ((2006). Towards an anticipation control theory of mind. Evolution, Complexity and Cognition group,
Vrije Universiteit Brussel. 1-20.

Hick, W. E. (1952). On the rate of gain of information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 4: 11-26.

Horrey, W. J., and C. D. Wickens (2006). Examining the impact of cell phone conversations on driving using meta
analytic techniques
. Human Factors 48(1): 196.

Hsieh, J-C. , Stone-Elander, S. and Ingvar. M. (1999). Anticipatory coping of pain expressed in the human interior
cingulate cortex: a positron emission tomography study
. Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. 61-64

Hsieh, S. 2002. Tasking shifting in dual-task settings. Perceptual and Motor Skills 94(2): 407.

Kashihara, K. and Y. Nakahara. 2005. Short-term effect of physical exercise at lactate threshold on choice reaction
. Perceptual and Motor Skills 100(2): 275-281.

Klien, G. (1998). Sources of power: How people make decisions. MIT Press, Boston, MA.

Klinger, D. (2004). Into the Kill Zone. Josey-Bass Publisher, San Francisco.

Klinger, D. (2006). Police response to officer-involved shootings. National Institute of Justice, Washington, D.C.

Kroll, W. (1973). Effects of local muscular fatigue due to isotonic and isometric exercise upon fractionated reaction
time components
. Journal of Motor Behavior 5: 81-93.

Krouchev, N. I. and Kalaska, J.F. 2003. Context-dependent anticipation of different task dynamics: rapid recall of
appropriate motor skills using visual cues
. The American Physiological Society. 1165-1175.

Laming, D. R. J. 1968. Information Theory of Choice-Reaction Times. Academic Press, London.

Levitt. S. and B. Gutin. 1971. Multiple choice reaction time and movement time during physical exertion. Research
Quarterly 42: 405-410.

Masanobu, A. and K. Choshi. (2006). Contingent muscular tension during a choice reaction task. Perceptual and Motor
102(3) (June 2006): 736-747.

McMorris, T., and Graydon, J. (2000). The effect of incremental exercise on cognitive performance. International
Journal of Sport Psychology 31: 66-81.

Miller, J. O. and K. Low. (2001). Motor Processes in simple, go/no-go, and choice reaction time tasks: a
psycho/physiological analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27: 266.

Mulligan, D.E., Dobson M.W., and J. McCracken. (2004). A simulation for learning strategy and perceptual skill in hockey. Proceedings of the Seventh IASTED International Conference Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. (August: 142-147).

Murray, K.R. (2006). Training at the speed of life. Armiger Publications, Gotha, FL.

Oren, T. I. and Yilmaz, L. (2004). Behavior anticipation in agent simulation. 2004 Winter Simulation Conference.

Perruchet, P., A. Cleeremans and A. Destrebecqz. (2006). Dissociating the effects of automatic activation and explicit expectancy on reaction times in a simple associative learning task. Journal of Experimental Psychology:

Learning, Memory and Cognition 32.5 (Sept 2006): 955-966.

Pinizzotto, A. J., Davis, E.F., and Miller, C.E., (1997). In the line of fire: a study of selected felonious assaults on law enforcement officers. United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and National Institute of Justice.

Pinizzotto, A.J., Davis, E. F., and Miller, C. E. (2006). Violent encounters: a study of felonious assaults on our nation's law enforcement officers. United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau Of Investigation, and National Institute of Justice. 157-161.

Ploghaus, A. Tracey, I., Gati, J.S., Clare, S., Menon, R. S., Matthews, P. M., Rawlins, J. N. P. (1999). Science Mag.

Ratey, J.J. (2001). A User’s Guide to the Brain. Pantheon Books, NY.

Rogers, M. W., M. E. Johnson, K. M. Martinez, M-L Mille, and L. D. Hedman. (2003). Step training improves the speed of voluntary step initiation in aging. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A 58(1): 46-52.

Ross, D. L., and Siddle, B. K. (2003). An analysis of the effects of survival stress in police use of force encounters.
Journal of Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 2:9-25, 2003.

Sanders. A. F. (1998). Elements of Human Performances: Reaction Processes and Attention in Human Skill. Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Mahwah, New Jersey. 575 pages.

Scott, D. and L. M., Howe, B. L. (1998). Training anticipation for intermediate tennis players. Behavior Modification.
Sage Publications. 243-261.

Siddle, B. and Siddle, K.( 2005). Combat human factors: triggering the survival circuit. PPCT Publications. 1-11.

Siddle, B. (1999). The impact of the sympathetic nervous system on use of force investigations. PPCT Publications, 1- 8.

Siddle, B. K. (1995). Sharpening the Warrior’s Edge. PPCT Publications, Belleville, IL.

Singleton, W. T. (1953). Deterioration of performance on a short-term perceptual-motor task. In W. F. Floyd and A. T.  Welford (Eds.), Symposium on Fatigue. H. K. Lewis and Co., London, pp. 163-172.

Sjoberg, H. (1975). Relations between heart rate, reaction speed, and subjective effort at different work on a bicycle
ergo meter
. Journal of Human Stress 1: 21-27.

Sports Coach. (1997). Reaction time. Sports Coach: Google.com 1-7.

Szinnai, G. H. Schachinger, M. J. Arnaud, L. Linder, and U. Keller, (2005). Effect of water deprivation on cognitive-
motor performance in healthy men and women
. The American Journal of Physiology 289(1): R275-280.

Trimmel, M., and G. Poelzl. (2006). Impact of background noise on reaction time and brain DC potential changes of
VDT-based spatial attention
. Ergonomics 49(2): 202-209.

Uniform Crime Reports Section, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and United States Department of Justice. (1992- 2005). Killed in the line of duty: a study of selected felonious killings of law enforcement officers. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Uniform Crime Reports.

University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2006). Anticipation plays a powerful role in human memory, brain study finds. Science Daily. 1-2.

Vasterling, J. J. 2006. Neuropsychological outcomes of Army personnel following deployment to the Iraq War. “JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 296(5): 519-530.

Welford, A. T. 1968. Fundamentals of Skill. Methuen, London.

Welford, A. T. 1980. Choice reaction time: Basic concepts. In A. T. Welford (Ed.), Reaction Times. Academic Press, New York, pp. 73-128.

Wells, G. R. 1919. The influence of stimulus duration on RT. Psychological Monographs 15: 1066.

Whitesell, P. 2003. Brain functioning. Presentation at PPCT seminar, Aspen, CO.

Williams, J. The psychology of combat. Bugei Trading Company. 1-6.

About the author

Dr. Ross is one of 12 Pressure Point Control Tactics (PPCT) Advisory Board Members and is the Director of Research for PPCT. He was awarded the “Excellence in Leadership Award” by PPCT in 2000. He regularly certifies police, corrections, the military and private security personnel as instructors in these subject control tactics nationally and internationally. He has developed 15 managerial and 7 line officer training programs, has made 12 training videos, and has been authorized to provide training in 12 states. Dr. Ross is an author of multiple books including "Civil Liability Issues in Corrections," "Civil Liability in Criminal Justice, 4th Ed." and "Sudden Death in Custody".

Contact Darrell Ross
Back to previous page